Clonidine acts primarily on the central nervous system, resulting in reduced sympathetic outflow and a decrease in peripheral resistance, renal vascular resistance, heart rate and blood pressure. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate remain essentially unchanged. Normal postural reflexes are intact and therefore orthostatic symptoms are mild and infrequent. During long-term therapy, cardiac output tends to return to control values, while peripheral resistance remains decreased. Slowing of the pulse has been observed in most patients given clonidine, but the drug does not alter normal haemodynamic response to exercise.
Severe or life-threatening haemorrhage, . during anticoagulant therapy: The coumarin anticoagulant should be withdrawn and an intravenous injection of Konakion MM given slowly in a dose of 5-10 mg together with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). The dose of vitamin K 1 can be repeated as needed. The prothrombin level should be estimated three hours later and, if the response has been inadequate, the dose should be repeated. Not more than 40mg of Konakion MM should be given intravenously in 24 hours.
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